The newest entry in this wilderness survival genre is Dual Survivor. This Discovery Channel show features two wilderness survival instructors, primitive skills expert Cody Lundin and army trained hunter and scout Dave Canterbury.
Here is a clip from the first episode which pits our two intrepid survivors on an isolated island off the coast of Nova Scotia:
The whole gist of the show is simple: put two completely different survival experts with diametrically opposed survival philosophies together in the wilderness and see what happens.
If you watch the clip and read the bios online, one clearly gets the impression that each survivor fills a particular niche.
Cory Lundin is the New Age hippie who combines Native inspired primitive living skills, new age spiritualism, and a sprinkling of solid science to live in harmony with the natural world.
Dave Canterbury is the hardened, military vet who combines strict discipline with practical survival skills to overcome his sworn enemy- the savage, unforgiving wilderness.
In many ways, the first show both reinforces and breaks down these two stereotypes. Cody Lundin definitely gets into the pseudo-science when he talks about training his mitochondria to adapt to the cold, which the narrator quickly points out happened only after many generations in Arctic people. Cody references a digging stick and hunter/gatherer societies when he digs up clams. The most awkward thing is that the show's music always shifts to Native American style flute music whenever the action centers on Cody.
Dave Canterbury criticizes Cody and his "bush hippie logic" and refuses to eat the clams. Instead, he insists on catching a "red-blooded 4-legged furry critter" as he calls them. In fact, he succeeds in killing a porcupine which he proceeds to cut up and consume. Interestingly, Dave (and not Cody) eats the heart first saying "the spirit of the animal is in its heart" so he eats it "to be close to the animal." Dave also refers to the survival shelter Cody constructs as being as "warm as a Lakota sweat lodge."
In case you have any lingering doubts as to the direction the producers were going with the show, this 30 second spot should clear them up:
As a fan of both Survivorman and Man vs. Wild, I have seen both Les Stroud and Bear Grylls reference and utilize indigenous inspired survival strategies. Both of them learn from the local indigenous communities and practice specific learned skills.
Cody Lundin takes this trend to the next level, helped in part by the direction of the show. His Native inspired, New Age philosophy is more abstract than the practical skills both Bear and Les practice in their shows. It also doesn't help that his philosophy (or lifestyle as he calls it) serves as the foil to Dave's hardened, military ways.
I decided to do a little more investigating and stumbled upon his survival training school:
Aboriginal Living Skills School
First, let's analyze the outward appearance of Cody Lundin.
His look is clearly Native inspired with the long cloth-ended braids, Apache headband, and turquoise jewelry. It's almost as if you crossed some California surfer dude with a Woodstock Hippie with a Hollywood Indian:
His philosophy is also Native inspired. First, there is the name "Aboriginal Living Skills School." He refers to a difficult period in his life as "my warrior training." His life changed forever when "he experienced a transformation in the Red Rock wilderness" and after deciding to share Nature with others "consciously entered a multi-year journey of hard choices, deprivation, and self-correction."
After watching Dual Survival and seeing Cory Lundin's website I wondered: Is he alone in this Native inspired survivalism or is he part of a larger trend? I decided to google "survival school" and "primitive living" and stumbled upon some interesting websites:
I want you to pay attention to these three things when perusing the following sites:
1. Name of the School
2. Visual imagery and themes
3. Word choices, tone, and program philosophy
Also, remember the difference between primitive living skills and survival skills. Brain tanning a deer hide and knapping a flint spear will probably not help you in a survival situation. Then again some primitive skills such as snares or dead falls for catching food are effective survival skills. But notice how these two distinct skill sets are taught at the same schools, blurring the lines between the two.
I have included a little commentary and direct quotations from the websites:
Boulder Outdoor Survival School
"BOSS instructors bring to their courses a diverse background of personal experiences with traditional culture... BOSS staff have lived and learned from the Native peoples, not to mention the knowledge gained from North America's heritage of native tribes and nations."
Notice the pictograph artwork on the main page.
Midwest Native Skills Institute
"You will feel empowered as you learn to make fire by rubbing 2 sticks together, make a meal from the plants you find, and how to set snares or traps for food."
Anake Outdoor School
"Our wilderness education courses draw on traditions from indigenous cultures world-wide, emphasizing nature as teacher, routines to enhance awareness, storytelling, self-motivated learning, and tracking as an interpretive tool."
"The Anake Outdoor School helps people develop a deep and intimate relationship with the natural world. This life changing wilderness experience is grounded in a powerful, community-oriented philosophy of learning that is informed by the legacy of indigenous cultures from around the world, and a cutting-edge understanding of our natural heritage as human beings."
Notice how the four core values are assigned to the four cardinal directions, not unlike a medicine wheel.
In a unique African twist, this school was founded by Ingwe, otherwise known as M. Norman Powell. He was "raised on a colonial plantation in Kenya, Africa, where he grew up under the tutelage of an older boy, Ndaka, a member of the local Akamba community. He was eventually initiated into Akamba society, and carried those traditions with him through all his life."
Ancient Pathways, LLC
"It has been said that the best way to remain "civilized" is to get away from civilization for a while."
Course offerings include: Braintan Buckskin Intensive, Bushcraft Course, and Walkabout
Notice the Sun, Moon, and Wildlife imagery.
The website also emphasizes the Native presence in its Northern Arizona location saying: "Northern Arizona is also the home of the Hopi, Navajo, Supai, Hualapai, Apache, and Paiute, and has the largest concentration of Native American languages anywhere in North America." This line is completely unrelated to the actual survival courses but instead serves to tie the courses to the local Native groups.
For a survival school founded by two guys from Essex and Kent in merry old England, they sure lode up on the Native imagery and spirituality.
"Bushcraft or Wilderness Living skills are not new, they are as old as mankind itself. They were the living skills of our ancestors and forebears, just as they are the living skills of native peoples and outdoors folk all over the world today because they really work."
"Skills which enabled our ancestors and forebears to make fire, find shelter, water and food in an often unfriendly world, skills which made their lives not only bearable but comfortable and which taught them a deep respect for the nature around them, skills which can be learnt and used by you just as they did."
Survival in the Bush, Inc.
"Presently working with a number of aboriginal bands to teach individuals a series of wilderness living skills."
"Gino has traveled extensively in the Canadian northlands, and has taught survival techniques to the Inuit, Metis, and Native people." (as far as I can tell, Gino is not Inuit, Metis, or Native himself)
Tom Brown Jr's Tracker School
"The Tracker School was founded in 1978 by Tom Brown Jr, Americas most renowned Tracker, and Wilderness Survival expert. Based on the teachings of Stalking Wolf, the Apache elder from whom Tom began teaching, when he was seven years old, the school has expanded to include over 75 classes, divided into eight course tracks, of the teachings that Grandfather passed to tom."
Notice the skull, feathers, and mud-covered people on the home page.
Course offering example: Food- sacred hunting and fishing:
"Native people believe that when we take a life for our nourishment it becomes part of us, one with our being. Thus, it is absolutely necessary that we show the Creator honest and humble gratitude in prayer, and that we properly honor our brothers and sisters of the rivers, oceans, and seas, as they sustain and nourish us in this life. Every skill has its own myths, prayers, legends and traditions, and in this course Tom will share with students many of Grandfather’s beautifully preserved skills of what he considered Sacred Fishing."
Apparently, he is not without controversy and has been labeled by some as a fraud: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Brown_%28naturalist%29#Controversies
And: "I've attended this school, multiple times, Im not going back. He has alot of credit and has a HUGE following, criticize me if you want, but i know hes full of s**t. This guy needs to be proven a fake." (source)
Woodsmoke: Bushcraft and Wilderness Survival
Another UK school heavy on the Native imagery and philosophy that invites you to "join our tribe."
"Wilderness living skills have been developed and refined, not only by native peoples in foreign climes, but also much closer to home: by woodsmen, hunters, trappers, naturalists, research teams, contemporary explorers, and the pioneers who opened up the frontiers of the New World."
An interesting piece on the "Bushcraft Paradox?"
"Wilderness bushcraft, as a modern western concept, began as a set of rudimentary survival skills that were gradually added to from a global repository of indigenous knowledge."
"How do we explain our endless fascination with native peoples and their intimate understanding of the land? Their apparent happiness and being at ease with themselves, especially when they have so little? Perhaps it is because we have confused our value structure and lost sense of meaning - having been pre-conditioned to try to generate our happiness through possessions, purchasing new ‘feel-good’ toys and trinkets."
In other words, they want to escape from the modern world through the conduit of indigenous cultures.
"At Earthwalk Northwest, our mission is to guide participants in bridging the past with the present to benefit the future. We recognize that the work of mastering traditional skills is a vehicle for reconnecting people with the earth, enabling them to become effective caretakers."
Another unique twist- one of the two founders, Karen, "is a Northwest native who grew up studying the flora of the Pacific Northwest"
Courses include: arrow making, primitive fishing, and flint knapping.
They also serve wild food dinners where "each meal reflects the traditional wild foods gathered and prepared by indigenous peoples from this region."
Nunavik Arctic Survival Training Center
"expert Inuit instructors teach critical survival skills... led by our experienced Inuit instructors, NASTC travel packages offer visitors a truly authentic Arctic experience"
"The cheerful and friendly manner of the region’s inhabitants, the Inuit, will quickly put you at ease. Nunavik Inuit will welcome you warmly to their corner of the world, introducing you to the distinctive characteristics of their cultural and linguistic heritage, art and history, as well as traditional clothing and tools."
The school name also appears in the Inuit language.
Hollowtop Outdoor Primitive School
"Primitive living is a metaphor we participate in and act out. Life is simplified down to the bare essentials: physical and mental well-being, shelter, warmth, clothing, water, and food. We go on an expedition to meet those needs with little more than our bare hands."
He writes a long reflective essay about primitive living entitled Quest for Freedom. Here we have an insider, a primitive skills instructor himself, making the point better than I can:
"As an instructor of primitive wilderness survival skills, I meet all kinds of people who seek to rediscover the ways of our ancestors. I have noticed that many and perhaps most of these individuals are driven by a great thirst--almost a desperation--for freedom. They often feel they are held in bondage by civilization, stuck in jobs they don't want, paying meaningless bills while unable to get ahead, and forced to be accomplices in the destruction of the natural world. They feel as if civilization has them locked in chains and stuck in a box, against which they rattle and wail in desperation to get free. They are part of a counter-culture of people who see civilization as a dead end.... They want to break free from the chains of civilization to live as our ancestors did in supposed harmony with nature. Perhaps you are one of these individuals. If so, then this article is written for you."
"As a teenager I got caught up in the romantic notion of living a Stone Age existence in harmony with nature. However, I finally acknowledged that 1) it wasn't sustainable, 2) even if it was sustainable, it would be impossible to convince the rest of the world to join me, and 3) with thousands of hours Stone Age skills experience, I found that living in the Stone Age is immensely satisfying for insightful and recreational purposes, but I wouldn't want to live that way every day. Pretty much anyone who spends enough time living Stone Age skills comes to the same conclusion--that it is a hard way to live. Thus, the dream of returning to the Stone Age is a 'non-goal' three times over."
He finishes the essay describing how this return to primitivism is a transformative journey and not a destination. In other words, living the primitive/indigenous lifestyle is not only romanticized it's impractical. He encourages us all to embrace sustainability through modern technology and look more holistically at our problems in order to solve them.
All of the above schools use Native inspired designs, imagery, names, and philosophy. But they are also not all alike. I can split them into three distinct categories based on the individuals involved.
1. Non-Natives with no association or questionable associations with Native people.
2. Non-Natives who have trained with or learned from native people.
3. Native individuals who draw upon their own cultures and traditions.
The problem is that it is impossible to accurately know the motivations of each person in creating their philosophy, programs, and website. Do individuals like Cory Lundin or the Woodsmoke school have a true affinity for indigenous cultures and survival techniques or are they just sucked into the cult of the Natural-Primitive Indian? Are they simply using these images and terms to tap into our own cultural feelings toward the Natural-Primitive Indian?
In other words, are the Native images and philosophy just suggestive marketing to get an already sympathetic and interested crowd (outdoor enthusiasts, survivalists, New Age types) one step closer to playing Indian and fulfilling their ultimate fantasy?
One of the most telling things is from the websites and programs run by Native people. They all make a strong point of emphasizing their authenticity and their own traditions. Is this possibly a direct reaction to these non-Native experts using Native imagery, techniques, and philosophy? Or are they just taking advantage of the same cultural trends to tap into some deep-seated love of everything Native among non-Natives in the United States and abroad?
My thoughts: I think that everyone above truly appreciates indigenous cultures. I'm just not sure about their motivations or even what "indigenous" means to them. The websites range from respectful and informative to those filled with generic "Indian" tipis and New Age nature imagery.
Some seem to have an honest affinity for real Native skills and culture and respectfully incorporate that into their programs. Others show a love and appreciation for an idealized primitive Native lifestyle that is based more on New Age escapism and traditional stereotypes that make for powerful marketing.
And some are in between.
This whole trend is nothing new and extends all the way back to the preeminent outdoors group, the Boy Scouts who have appropriated Native imagery and philosophy for well over a century.
Regardless, it is a fascinating trend worth noting and investigating. I want to lastly thank my friend Jen D. whose original research into this topic inspired my own, so Thank You!